Linux based systems uses defined terminologies for different components of Processors.
Chip: Chip or CPU chip is Integrated Circuit (IC) which encompasses single or multiple cores.
Sockets: Socket is a physical connector on Motherboard that accepts the chip. Motherboards can have multiple sockets.
Core: A core is basic computation unit of CPU capable of running single program context.
HyperThreading: Hyperthreading is the capability of a Core to run multiple program context. It makes single core appear logically as multiple cores on the same chip.
Processor: Processor can be defined as either single core or multicore chip.
Processes: A process is a program running on the computer. It has memory stack associated with it.
Threads: A thread is a process that doesn’t have memory stack associated with it. A thread is tied to a parent process. Threads can execute simultaneously on separate cores.